Welcome back to our book study. I hope you're ready for chapter 2. Don't forget to link up to one of us depending on your grade. Elementary teachers link up at the end of this post and secondary here:
****************************************************************************** The author recommends teaching all four strategies at once to your class in several lessons over time.
She goes on to give examples on how to introduce these four strategies.
One example is through the use of read-alouds. This is simply reading aloud from the text and modeling the strategies. Later, you'll ask students to talk throughout the lesson using the modeled techniques. The four strategies should be displayed so that as each one is discussed they can be named.
Another way to introduce the "Fab Four" is through shared reading in poetry.
Predict before reading, then read together. Afterwards, teacher models clarifying, questioning, and summarizing the poem.
The author recommends the use of a four door chart to reinforce and practice the strategies. Students practice the strategies orally and record their responses under each category. You can also focus on one strategy by writing it on all four door for students to record responses.
photo from http://reciprocalteachingresources.wikispaces.com/Visual+Aids
The author further recommends teaching the strategies using characters or props. You may use puppets, objects or large pictures to hold up or use during think alouds. The book references Appendix E which includes reproducible posters and icons for use.
The author mentions the use of "mentor texts" in teaching clarifying, questioning, summarizing, and predicting. She makes book recommendations for each of the different strategies.
Here are a few:
Predict: Tree of Birds by Susan Meddaugh
Question: The Stranger by Chris Van Allsburg
Clarify: Owl Moon by Jane Yolen
Summarize: Animals Nobody Loves by Seymour Simon
The next part of the chapter talks about the use of gestures for the four strategies. The use of gestures makes "learning more concrete." Here are some examples:
Rub an imaginary crystal ball for predicting.
Hold a pretend microphone for questioning.
Hold your hands parallel forming a pause button symbol for clarifying.
Make a pretend lasso to round up main ideas for summarizing.
Fab Four Puppets from Reciprocal Teaching at Work by L.D. Oczkus from International Literacy Assoc on Vimeo.
Other fun ways to practice the "Fab Four" include games. The first uses a die for students to roll a strategy. They then use a sentence starter for that strategy to discuss the text. The second uses a dial with the strategies. This dial can be used to show what strategy is being used or to spin what will be practiced next. The spinner is included as a reproducible in the book.
What is appropriate reading material for reciprocal teaching?
All types of text can be used. Whatever you use in your classroom normally will work well. The recommendation is to use text at the level or a slightly higher level of the students since the goal is to increase comprehension. Break longer text into smaller parts while incorporating reciprocal teaching. Scaffolding is most effective when working with smaller pieces to understand at a time. Also choose a variety of different types of text to assess your students proficiency in using the strategies.
The book includes a table of various reading materials and teaching suggestions to use reciprocal teaching with these texts.
After your class has become familiar with the four strategies it is important to continue modeling and assess on a regular basis. Reteach strategies as necessary. The book includes sample lesson plans for reciprocal teaching.